Information to the Public

Aids: Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome.

          Aids was first  reported just over  20 years ago.  The pandemic struck just when there was considerable progress being made in the health front and is set to reach catastrophic proportions.  It has exposed all the limitations, weaknesses and prejudices  concealed within the health care system and in the entire social structure itself.
           Aids is caused by immunodeficiency virus (HIV).  A wide spectrum of clinical features follow HIV infection ranging from asymptomatic infection to full blown AIDS. It is not known whether all the persons infected with HIV  will eventually develop symptomatic disease. In some cases there appears no progress in the  infection while in others  full blown aids develop either through stages  or directly within an incubation period  ranging from 6 months  to more than 10 years after the acute HIV infection.
            The first HIV Sero- Positive individual in India was detected in 1986 among the prostitutes of Madras city and the first case of Aids was reported  in May 1986. This patient was infected by a blood transfusion during coronary bye-pass surgery in USA. Since then serological studies of various groups screened has shown that HIV prevalence rate  has grown tremendously.
Homosexuals, Intravenous drug users, Heterosexual Promiscuity & Perinatal, 
Minor: Persistent cough for longer than one month
            Generalized itching and dermatitis
            Recurrent Herpes Zoster
            Fungus infection in the throat and mouth
            Chronic progressive and disseminated Herpes Simplex,
            Generalized Lymphadenopathy
Major:  Weight loss
             Chronic Diarrhea for longer than one month  
             Prolonged fever for longer than one month (Continuous or intermittent)  
Mode of Transmission:
Cervical fluids,
Breast milk,
Cerebrospinal fluid,
Lungs and
Brain and Nerves.
High Risk Groups:
Male homosexuals and bisexuals  with multiple partners,
Heterosexual partners (including Prostitutes),
Intravenous drug abusers,
Transfusion recipients of  blood and blood products ,
Hemophiliacs ,
Clients of prostitutes,
Predominant modes of HIV Transmission :
Sexual intercourse: Vaginal , Anal
Blood borne: Transfusion, Injective drug Abuse, Others(tattoos)
Perinatal : Mother to foetus-intrauterine transmission
During labor and delivery to infant if the mother harbours the HIV
Post natal transmission :
Through breast milk
Others: BY
Organs transplantations,
Artificial inseminations,
Cornea and bone marrow transplants

While providing First Aid :
Mouth to mouth Resuscitation
While attending Bleeding injuries
Not effected through
Sharing of food utensils, drinking cups, beds, bathing facilities, toilet seats, telephone receivers , towels, second hand clothes etc,
Casual contacts like shaking hands, dry  kissing, hugging, dancing or swimming
Bites of insects like mosquitoes, bedbugs or flies as the virus cannot replicate or survive for long periods of time in anthropods.
Sneezing or coughing
Presence of other sexually transmitted diseases as a contributing factor (Syphilis,Chancroid, and  Genital Herpes )
Parenternal Transmission:
Infected blood and blood products
Any part of skin piercing with needles infected with HIV
Sharing razor blades, and tooth brushes of HIV infected people.